Processing and transcriptome expansion at the mRNA 3' end in health and disease: finding the right end.


Publication Type:

Source:

Pflugers Arch, Volume 468, Issue 6, p.993-1012 (2016)

Keywords:

3' Untranslated Regions, Animals, Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic, Humans, RNA Processing, Post-Transcriptional, RNA, Messenger, Transcriptome

Abstract:

<p>The human transcriptome is highly dynamic, with each cell type, tissue, and organ system expressing an ensemble of transcript isoforms that give rise to considerable diversity. Apart from alternative splicing affecting the "body" of the transcripts, extensive transcriptome diversification occurs at the 3' end. Transcripts differing at the 3' end can have profound physiological effects by encoding proteins with distinct functions or regulatory properties or by affecting the mRNA fate via the inclusion or exclusion of regulatory elements (such as miRNA or protein binding sites). Importantly, the dynamic regulation at the 3' end is associated with various (patho)physiological processes, including the immune regulation but also tumorigenesis. Here, we recapitulate the mechanisms of constitutive mRNA 3' end processing and review the current understanding of the dynamically regulated diversity at the transcriptome 3' end. We illustrate the medical importance by presenting examples that are associated with perturbations of this process and indicate resulting implications for molecular diagnostics as well as potentially arising novel therapeutic strategies.</p>